Capital of Germany
Overall Grade: B 84%
- Reduction Success Local Emissions
- Low Emission Zones & Bans of High Emitters
- Public Procurement Clean Cars
- Non-Road Mobile Emission Sources
- Use of Economic Incentives
- Traffic & Mobility Management Incl. Modal Split
- Modal Shift to Public Transport
- Modal Shift to Walking & Cycling
- Transparency & Communication Policy
From 2005 to 2009, the exceedance days at the traffic station Friedrichshain-Frankfurter Allee decreased from 73 to 40. Also the background station Neukölln-Nansenstraße reported 33 exceedance days in 2005 and 22 in 2009. The city thus experienced a reduction of the number of exceedance days of 45% whereas the traffic emission related exceedance days were reduced by 55%. The city’s thorough measurement and methodology supply good data on these changes.
Example of the city of Berlin shows clearly that background and also transboundary emissions can have an impact on a city’s air quality. Over 50% of Berlin’s PM10 concentrations are due to background and transboundary emissions, the rest being mainly caused by local traffic.
- Information on air pollution (ger.)
The Low Emission Zone (LEZ) was introduced on 1 January 2008. The scope of the LEZ covers the inner city (88km2). Since 1 January 2010 only vehicles with Euro 4 or retrofitted Euro 3 vehicles are allowed to enter the LEZ. Thanks to a close monitoring and strict enforcement, the LEZ has led to significant emission reductions. Transport emissions have considerably decreased: in 2010 soot emissions from exhaust pipes decreased by 40% and NOx by 19%. It also resulted in a change in the overall composition of the vehicles fleet in Berlin. In 2009, 88% of the cars driving in Berlin both inside and outside the LEZ had a minimum of Euro 4 standard.
- The Environmental Zone (ger.)
All new municipal cars need to be equipped with a diesel particle filter (DPF) and where possible best-available emission standards. The bus fleet in Berlin is completely equipped with diesel-particulate filters already for 10 years. The busses are planned to be almost completely modernised to
Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicle (EEV)-standard. New bus acquisitions are tendered with EURO 6 requirements where possible. About 100 buses with Euro 3 standard will be retrofitted with a Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology (SCR) filter systems by 2013 in order to reach EEV-standard. One fourth of the city’s cleaning vehicles are fuelled by gas. 400 new utility vehicles (garbage vehicles, power sweepers etc.) will have to comply with best environmental standards, possibly by using SCR systems or hybrid engines.
There are no obligatory standards within Berlin yet but it has been agreed to introduce them in 2011 or 2012. The share of particle emissions from NRMM near main roads is rather small (below 5 %). There was a trial programme to retrofit passenger ships with particulate filter systems (3 ships + monitoring: → positive resultsCurrently, construction machines are covered by the German national legislation on emissions for combustion engines. It is therefore difficult for Berlin to decide upon regional or local legislation requiring particulate filters for construction machines in low emission zones. However, the city acknowledges the importance of tight regulations to reduce the PM emissions from construction machines. The city created a voluntary guideline and is seeking cooperation with industry associations to reach a voluntary commitment. Regulations are agreed to be introduced in 2011 or 2012. Regarding rail transport, emission standards and diesel-particulate filters are part of the requirements for public bidding. Regarding ships, there was a trial test programme to retrofit 3 passenger ships with diesel particulate filters. The monitoring of the trial suggested positive results.
No congestion charging system exists. Between 2003 and 2009, the number of paid parking spaces increased by 74% from below 48,000 to the number of 83,000 in 36 parking zones with special regulations for residents, guests and companies. The parking policy coordinated at regional level intends to progressively reduce car use to the benefit of public transport, cycling and walking. The feasibility of reducing on-road parking spaces by 16% by 2018 is currently assessed. A reform of the parking management was launched in 2011.
- Information on parking management (ger.)
With its urban traffic planning strategy
StEP Verkehr, Berlin has developed a
very comprehensive set of measures aiming at reducing car use in the city. It
presents an ambitious strategy to reduce car use but also promote cycling and
walking as well as public transport. In Berlin, the general speed limit is 55 km/h
on main roads, with 30 km/h on large parts of the secondary streets. Some of the
main roads are additionally reduced to 30 km/h maximum speed. 75% of the roads in
Berlin are subject to 30 km/h speed limits. That includes also 230kms of main
roads, although partly temporary. The share of 30 km/h zones will be continually
increased. Among others, the city promotes and speeds up public transport and
cycling, if necessary or useful to the disadvantage of cars. It also created
measures for mobility management for companies, as well as for commuters, for
schools and for elderly people. Car sharing is promoted by dedicated parking
spaces, and several measures promote multimodal interconnectivity, for example
between local and long-distance mobility choices with a budget of 1 Million euro.
The city has one of the lowest shares of cars per inhabitants in Germany. The modal split experiences a growing share of bikes, pedestrians and public transport in the city, while the share of car driver dropped by 7% in 10 years. Whereas in 1998, the modal share had 39% motorised individual transport, in 2008 it was only 32%. In the same time cycling increased by 3% to 13% and walking increased from 25% to 29%. Public transport had a share of 27% in 2008. The targets of Berlin for 2025 are realistic and aim at reducing the car use to 25% while increasing the share of public transport (to 29%) and cycling (to 18%).
Berlin has a good public transport system with metro, trams and buses. The city aims at promoting public transport and increasing its modal share, although it does not set ambitious targets. In the past years, the city has concentrated on renovating old network section, stations, has increased frequency and has introduced measures for speed increase of busses and trams. The plans for the future include further increase of frequency of the metro, extensions of different tram lines and improvements in multimodal customer information.
In that past decade, Berlin has experienced a long trend towards more cycling and walking. The city has improved the infrastructure for bikes in many aspects. For examples are new cycling lanes established on the roads as a rule. Also, many one-way streets can be used by cyclists in both directions. There are cycling routes on secondary roads, labelled by signs. Regarding walking, no comprehensive strategy has been set to increase walking until 2010 and pedestrian zones are very small. The 2011 decision to focus also on walking is noted here, but not yet reflected in the ranking.
The city provides online information on air quality, including daily and annual limit values. It also provides online background information, a phone hotline and a low emission zone 'mailbox'. Furthermore, there are international LEZ tourist flyers, information campaigns and print media. The city also involved NGO and civil society in drafting the air quality action plan.
- Air Quality in Berlin (ger.)
Response to Questionnaire
The City replied to the questionnaire.