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Non-Road Mobile Emission Sources

Non Road Mobile Machinery (NRMM) is a major emission source which is often overlooked. In some cities, it is responsible to up to 30% of traffic pollution. Construction machines are in use many hours every day and during extended time periods. Vessels and railways are other emitters which should be equipped with particle filters if they operate in cities. Numbers show that NRMM is responsible for around 7% of particulate matter and 16% of nitrogen oxides in Europe. The EU regulation of NRMM is relatively low and still recent compared to vehicles legislation, which can explain that some cities are still lagging behind. However, some of the 17 cities we have evaluated show that it is possible to introduce concrete and effective measures to tackle NRMM emissions specifically.

Zurich

Switzerland

One of the city`s regulations requires diesel-powered machinery over 18 kW to be equipped with a verified particle filter when working on municipal construction sites. For private construction sites, an obligation for particle filters is in place for machinery over 37 kW.

For construction sites with transport volumes bigger than 20,000 m³, the road transport vehicles must also meet emissions requirements. In this case, Euro emission standard IV or better is mandatory.

National website to Ordinance on Air Pollution Control, Section 4a: Requirements for Construction Machines and Particle Filter Systems (Engl.): http://www.admin.ch/opc/en/classified-compilation/19850321/index.html

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Berlin

Capital of Germany

Since 2014 construction machinery which is used on construction sites have to fulfill emission standard IIIB/IIIA (IIIA for machines <37KW). This corresponds to the current EU standard prescribed for new machinery. Older construction machinery has to be equipped with a particulate filter.

In 2014, a two-day workshop with the producers of construction machinery and the stakeholders of the building sector, politicians and NGO representatives was organised (with more than 200 participants). The city has a funding programme to incentivise modernisation of engines: In the framework of a trial programme three passenger ships were retrofitted with particulate filter systems. Their monitoring afterwards showed positive results.

Currently, construction machinery are covered by a German legislation on emissions for combustion engines. Regarding rail transport, emission standards and diesel particle filters are part of the requirements for public bidding.

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London

Capital of United Kingdom

A best practice guide for construction and demolition with recommendations on how to reduce dust and soot emissions from construction and demolition work was published in 2006 and substantially updated in 2014. It now includes a Low Emission Zone (LEZ) for non-road mobile machinery, which was introduced in 2015. The LEZ requires construction machinery between 37 kW and 560 kW to meet at least Euro IIIA regulation when working in Greater London and IIIB when working in central London or Canary Wharf. From 2020, regulations require Euro IIIB emissions standards when working in Greater London and Euro IV when working in central London or Canary Wharf. But there is no obligation to use particulate filters in addition to IIIA and IIIB-standards.

Guideline The Control of Dust and Emissions During Construction and Demolition (Engl.): https://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/planning/publications/…

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Stockholm

Capital of Sweden

Since 1999, Stockholm has run a programme to reduce emissions of off-road engines. The programme applies to a variety of engines, ranging from construction machines, wheel tractors and excavators to lawn mowers and hedge cutters. Contractors have to meet certain environmental requirements to be eligible to bid for municipal contracts. The contractor has to either use only new engines that meet the latest emissions standards, or to retrofit older engines with a certified emission control device. The requirements are a good step towards cleaner non-road machines, as they require at least a certain emission performance, however not yet with regard to particulate filters.

Additionally, the city’s port has several measures in place to improve its air quality. This includes differentiated port fees as well as long-term environmental targets, including 0% CO2 emissions by 2025. Several measures to promote the use of LNG have also been undertaken.

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Copenhagen

Capital of Denmark

The city of Copenhagen has a policy where private contractors must have particle filters on non-road mobile machines (NRMM), for example when constructing the new metro stations in Copenhagen. There are also other obligations for construction contractors, including those for minimising transportation during the construction period and energy consumption standards for the materials used. There are no general filter requirements for construction sites.

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Vienna

Capital of Austria

The city of Vienna originally had a local regulation in place that required particulate filter systems for all non-road machinery over 18KW. However the local regulation had to be cancelled by a national regulation, the so-called Offroad-Verordnung (ordinance), which was adopted in 2013. It implements a step-by-step increase in the standard of emission requirements for mobile machinery above 18kW between 2013 and 2019. Depending on the power of the machinery, specific Euro standards will be compulsory. Finally in 2019, Euro IIIa or higher will be compulsory for all machinery in order to access redevelopment areas (Sanierungsgebiete). New machinery purchases need to meet the diesel Euro IIIb standard as the minimum requirement. Vienna’s original regulation was substantially stricter, requiring particulate filter systems for machinery.

The city is also concentrating construction traffic on main roads with tunnels and side barriers. A general logistic plan for construction traffic has been put in place.

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Graz

Austria

Emission regulations regarding non-road mobile machinery require national legislation. Such legislation has been in place since 2011 and became legally binding in 2013. Called the Offroad-Verordnung (ordinance), this implements a incremental tightening of emission requirements for mobile machinery above 18kW between 2013 and 2019. Depending on the power of the machinery, specific Euro standards will be compulsory. Finally in 2019, Euro IIIa or higher will be compulsory for all machinery in order to have access to cities. New machinery purchases need to meet diesel Euro IIIb standards as the minimum requirement.

National legislation for mobile machinery (Ger.): www.offroadverordnung.at/ms/ms_offroad/offr_maschinen/

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Lyon

France

Non-road mobile machinery is a national responsibility, meaning that Lyon does not have measures in place. In the revised PPA from January 2014, they have given some information on the city’s future road map on this matter. An emission reduction target of 10% in the construction sector has been developed. To achieve this target, a guide on clean construction sites was published and must be respected by companies working on public construction sites. An obligation to use filters for machinery has not yet been considered.

Further investigations to quantify the effects of construction sites have been announced.

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Dusseldorf

Germany

Tenders state a preference for offers using construction machines with diesel particulate filters. Dusseldorf asks for a national NRMM conception and to implement it as soon as possible. Guidelines are being worked out to prevent the rising of dust and reduce spreading of dust at big construction sites.

51 construction machines are owned by the municipality but none is retrofitted with a particulate filter. They city is active in additional measures to address emissions from ships, in particular by creating landline electric charging points at ship berths.

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Barcelona

Spain

The city has developed a Green Construction Work plan with several measures including the use of special pavement, street sweeping and washing as well as the use of additives, some of which do not target emissions at the source but merely target concentration levels. Additionally, the city chose specifically to monitor the emissions from big construction projects. Retrofit programmes or particulate filter requirements were not developed at that time.

Barcelona’s port is an important source of pollutants. Consequently several measures have been introduced. There were improvements of port vehicles and machinery and requirements for the port truck fleet were set to at least Euro 4. Furthermore, an increased use of energy supply from land was envisaged. There were investments in LNG/CNG technology, either for power barges or for locomotives and trucks. Also there are ideas to change the pattern of port fees. By the end of 2015, 40% of internal vessels are planned to have completed a renewal programme. However, important for this evaluation, the port is not the responsibility of the city and therefore measures have not been graded as local AQ measures.

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Amsterdam

Capital of the Netherlands

There was almost no information in the returned questionnaire. Nor could other information could be retrieved on measures beyond what the city had been doing already. There was a mention of measures to replace generators with electric hubs and plans to foster procurement of cleaner non-road machinery. However, no further information could be retrieved. Also, there is no information on measures for inland navigation or passenger ships, despite an obvious need.

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Paris

Capital of France

EU regulations were implemented into national law, but no further information could be retrieved about national, regional or local instruments detailing how to decrease emissions from construction machinery or other non-road mobile machinery. However, as legislative competence is at the national level, the city`s scope of action is limited.

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Madrid

Capital of Spain

There are a few programmes on non-road emission sources. Madrid created information measures like information brochures that inform about air quality issues in construction, maintenance and demolition of buildings. Furthermore a best-practice guide for construction has been created. With these publications the city aims at creating awareness of the problem and promoting measures.

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Glasgow

United Kingdom

In 2014, the city decided to produce a code of practice for developments within the city, which promotes the use of best-possible techniques on dust control, though legislation for particulate filters has not yet been put in place.

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Milan

Italy

There is no general local legislation which regulates the emissions of non-road mobile machinery. However, when Environmental Impact Statements or Assessments need to be undertaken for certain projects, the public authority often mandates the use of particulate filters. Also, the city is evaluating the possibilities for local regulation within the current legal framework in Italy.

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Luxembourg

Capital of Luxembourg

EU regulations have been implemented into national law, but no further information could be retrieved about national, regional or local instruments that decrease emissions from construction machinery or other non-road mobile machinery.

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Rome

Capital of Italy

No information was forthcoming on whether there is local legislation to regulate emissions of non-road mobile machinery. National regulations do not seem to exist.

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Lisbon

Capital of Portugal

Information on non-road mobile emission sources is absent as there is no methodology in place for permanently evaluating emissions from construction machinery activity.

Monitoring emissions from waterway navigation exist at an inventory level: ships’ movements are registered and emission quantification is carried out. However, this information is not available for the general public and the administrations of major port areas do not publish any kind of environmental data.

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Brussels

Capital of Belgium

EU regulations were implemented into national law, but no further information could be retrieved about national, regional or local instruments determining how to decrease emissions from construction machinery or other non-road mobile machinery.

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Dublin

Capital of Ireland

EU regulations were incorporated into national law, but no further information could be retrieved about national, regional or local instruments for decreasing emissions from construction machinery or other non-road mobile machinery.

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Stuttgart

Germany

Despite many big construction sites in the city, there are no municipal regulations in force to reduce emissions from construction machinery. Standards for non-road mobile machinery are being worked out on the level of the federal state Baden-Württemberg to reduce PM10 emissions in areas with critical loads. In order to provide the missing legal basis (to be enacted end of 2015). Emission reduction schemes for construction sites have been announced. Pressure and lawsuits of the campaign led to the pledge of the biggest building contractor in Stuttgart, the Deutsche Bahn AG, to use only construction machinery with particulate filters. But the current action plan does not prescribe construction machinery with closed filters but only vaguely asks for the IIIb standard. This is clearly insufficient for Stuttgart since its intensive building activities and very big constructions sites have been going on for several years. The city waits for regulation of the state of Baden-Württemberg to be adopted.

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Prague

Capital of Czech Republic

EU regulations have been implemented into national law, but no further information could be retrieved about national, regional or local instruments for decreasing emissions from construction machinery or other non-road mobile machinery.

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Helsinki

Capital of Finland

No information could be retrieved about regional or local legislation concerning emissions from construction machinery.

On emissions from the port, the Port of Helsinki has an environmental principle saying to “use internal development work to reduce […] dust emissions as well as atmospheric emissions from our operations.”

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