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Public Procurement Clean Cars

Municipal vehicle fleets and buses cover big distances in cities and can therefore be a relevant source of air pollution. Also, they have a large share in heavy vehicles and diesel engines. And not to forget, they should serve as a role model. Retrofitting existing vehicles with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and furnishing new ones with effective filters or other clean technologies are relevant solutions which we’ve rewarded in this ranking. Cities have different strategies which include retrofitting existing vehicles, acquiring new ones, reducing the fleet or investing in alternative energy sources. As with other measures, the timeline for cleaning the municipal fleet is an important aspect that we have taken into consideration.



All existing vehicles were required to be retrofitted with particulate filters by the end of 2010. The city has put in place regulations that require the strictest Euro standards available for new vehicles. These regulations can help to lower PM10 and NOx emissions from transport (PM10 43% and NOx 46% in 2010).

Since 2009, all vehicles need to meet Euro 5 requirements, making particle filters mandatory (motorcycles Euro 3). As soon as Euro 6 regulations are implemented in 2015, particle limits for buses and lorries will be reduced to make particle filters mandatory for them as well. Regulations only apply to new vehicles; existing older vehicles do not need to be adapted to the new regulations.

The public transport company only acquires new diesel buses that comply with the Euro V “Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicle” standard and generally plans to convert their diesel bus fleet to electric trolley buses where possible.

As part of its CO2 reduction targets, the city has also set a fuel consumption reduction target of 2% per year (between 2006 and 2015). The municipal authorities use carpooling and car sharing services on business trips and for local use they have bicycles at their disposal.

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Capital of Germany

All new municipal cars need to be equipped with a diesel particle filter (DPF) and where possible best-available emission standards. The bus fleet in Berlin is completely equipped with diesel particulate filters for 10 years already. Buses are planned to be almost completely modernised to Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicle (EEV) standard. New bus acquisitions are tendered with Euro VI requirements where possible. About 100 buses with Euro III standard were retrofitted with NO2-reducing Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) filter systems by 2013 in order to reach EEV standard.

The share of diesel vehicles that are equipped with particulate filters in the public fleet (excluding buses) or that have Euro V/EEV standard in public institutions increased from 25 % in 2008 to 50-100% depending on the kind of institution.

One fourth of the city’s cleaning vehicles today are fuelled with gas. 400 new utility vehicles (garbage vehicles, power sweepers etc.) will have to comply with best environmental standards, possibly by using SCR systems or hybrid engines. This policy has been codified in an administrative regulation in 2012, demanding best available emissions standards and diesel particulate filters (DPF) if available.

Measures regarding public or municipal fleet (Ger.):…

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Capital of Denmark

All vehicles within the municipal fleet are required to comply with the city’s LEZ. Additionally, the city achieved its target to make all public cars in Copenhagen electric or hydrogen powered by 2015. In the city’s climate plan, the target is to achieve a complete transformation to electricity, hydrogen or biofuels.

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Capital of Austria

In the city of Vienna there were 1152 vehicles in the municipal fleet in 2013 (not including buses). Newly purchased vehicles are always equipped with engines with the highest Euro standards. 69% of vehicles meet at least Euro IV norms. Regarding the municipal bus fleet comprising 464 vehicles all running on gas, 91% meet at least Euro V standards. A conversion of all buses to diesel Euro VI standard is planned for the period between 2014 and 2019. Also, an interesting point of activity is the purchase of 12 electric as well as 6 hybrid buses for routes in the inner city.

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Capital of United Kingdom

All buses must comply at least with Euro IV standards. From 2015, Euro IV is also required. By the end of 2015, the city plans to have retrofitted 900 buses with NOx filters and to have replaced 900 old buses by buses to meet Euro VI standards. Additionally, 1700 new hybrid buses will be purchased by 2016.

Regarding the taxi fleet, London has set requirements that all taxis new to licensing must meet at least Euro 5 standards and must not be older than 15 years. This age limit has removed over 6000 of the most polluting taxis since 2012. A tightened age limit of 10 years is envisaged for 2020 across London. Although positive actions are undertaken regarding the taxi fleet, these 23,000 vehicles are still responsible for about 35% of central London’s PM10 emissions and around 15% of NOx emissions. NO2 emissions from the newest taxis, which are all diesel, equal or exceed those from the oldest models.

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A comprehensive retrofitting programme of buses was introduced by the end of 2006. 40% of buses comply with Euro V standard, 25% with EEV (Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles), 60% are equipped with diesel particulate filter (DPF). New vehicles must have a closed filter. Euro IV standard is fulfilled by 100% of the buses since 2009. Hybrid buses are being tested with diesel and fuel cell technique.

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The city of Barcelona does have a comprehensive strategy to modernise and clean up its bus fleet. In 2013, 38% of its bus fleet of 1,072 vehicles were natural gas buses and almost 40% (425) of its buses were retrofitted with an SCRT filter system. In 2010, 92% of the city’s cleaning and waste vehicles met at least Euro 5 standards or ran on natural gas. Only firefighting vehicles were behind, as 56% still failed to meet Euro 4 standards.

The city has development targets for its fleet, such as plans to increase the number of natural gas buses to 500 by 2018.

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Between 2009 and 2011, the local transport company increased the number as well as the share of buses with low environmental impact (Euro II and Euro III with particle filters, Euro IV, Euro V, EEV) from 78% to over 92%. There were 417 new trams, metros, electric buses and minibuses purchased for more than 550 million euros. Another 300 million euros were planned to be spent on 40 new underground trains with power recovery through braking. 75% of public transport runs on electricity.

Regarding the municipal vehicle fleet, extensive information was not available. The city of Milan has swapped 40 personal cars for 10 shared cars and thus reduced the entire fleet by 34%. An introduction of a municipal bicycle sharing system will further reduce the car fleet.

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Capital of Luxembourg

The city has a relatively modern bus fleet because of a programme which replaces 10 to 30 old buses every year. Accordingly, nearly 80% of buses meet the Euro V emissions standards, are hybrid vehicles or are Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEV). For 2020, the city’s Air Quality Plan aims to have only buses with Euro 5 emissions standards or higher.

No detailed information could be retrieved concerning regulations and emission classes of the municipal vehicle fleet, but generally almost every vehicle has, for example, particle filters because there is a high share of vehicles meeting the Euro 5 emissions standards.

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Capital of Belgium

Brussels has a clean bus fleet with almost 70% Euro V, Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEV) or buses equipped with particle filters. The municipal vehicle fleet, however, is less environmentally friendly with only 25% of passenger cars and heavy and light duty vehicles meeting or exceeding Euro 5/V standards.

Public administrations with more than 50 vehicles in their fleet are evaluated on the basis of ‘ecoscore’ indicators that take into account greenhouse gas emissions (CO2), air pollution (PM10 and NO2) and noise. Also, public transport contracts have been subject to environmental indicators for their renewal since 2012.

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Capital of Ireland

Dublin operates a bus fleet replacement programme. In 2012 and 2013, 160 new buses meeting Euro V emissions standards were purchased, making a total of 950 buses overall. For 2014, the city planned a trial for hybrid buses and Euro VI requirements for new buses. In 2015, Dublin Bus will purchase a further 90 Euro VI buses (replacing Euro II and Euro III vehicles). This will bring the percentage of Euro VI buses to approximately 35%. In general, Dublin Bus aims to replace about 80 buses per year if possible.

No information could be retrieved about detailed emission targets. Moreover, no information could be retrieved about the number and emission categories of municipal vehicles.

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The city provided limited information. The vehicle of the city and the local energy supplier will be gradually transformed into e-mobile vehicles as the city is investing heavily in an e-mobility programme. About 38% of buses are Euro V or Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEV).

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Capital of the Netherlands

At 44.7%, a large part of the municipal fleet is either Euro 5 or electric vehicles. Additionally, 37.9% are Euro 4. Only 17.5% were either Euro 3 or Euro 2. This means that a relatively small share of the vehicles are not yet clean, in spite of the city’s clean municipal fleet target for 2015. The municipality has recently decided to cancel the financial stimulation for cleaning the municipal fleet, as retrofitting the remaining vehicles retrofit or substitution would not be cost-effective.

For the bus fleet, no current information was retrieved, but for a long time already, new buses have been required to comply with best-available technology, suggesting a high share of Euro 5 & 6 or other low emission vehicles.

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United Kingdom

The minimum requirement of the city for vehicles is generally Euro 3, although a large part of the fleet is already Euro 5. All new vehicles are fitted with particle filters and NO2-reducing SCR technology. Furthermore, the city is investing in electric vehicles. 30 vehicles out of 1,218 are already electric. However, the share of dirty vehicles (35% Euro 2, 25% Euro 3) is still very high.

The Council is rather limited in what it can achieve to improve emissions standards of buses without a low emission zone because the bus operators are privately owned. This is why an LEZ is the best possible option for controlling bus emissions.

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Capital of France

Paris has an innovative and clean municipal car fleet, composed of 4000 vehicles and 180 bicycles in 2013. There are seven car sharing sites for municipal employees to borrow transport. 16% of vehicles are electric and 50% of all new city cars, sedans and small utility vehicles replacing old ones are envisaged to be electric or hybrid. By the end of 2014, the city wanted to invest €5m for removing all diesel sedan and diesel city cars. By 2020, the anti-air-pollution plan envisages a municipal fleet that is completely electric or hybrid.

In consultation with the mayor, the local transport company RATP has recently stated that it will replace old buses and have 100% Euro VI buses by 2025. By then, 80% of 4,500 buses will be electric and 20% will be powered by biogas. Currently, only a marginal share of the 120 buses are powered by gas, are hybrid or electric. Most of the rest only meet Euro II or III emissions standards.

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Capital of Spain

Madrid’s municipal fleet already receives particular attention for quite a while. In 2013, a total of 2,127 or 50.9% of fleet was either at least EURO V, EEV or retrofitted, a change of 5.4% or 165 vehicles from 2012. The city’s strategy aims at increasing the general share of gas, hybrid, and electric as well as low emission diesel vehicles.

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Capital of Finland

No information could be retrieved about the emission classes and number of municipal vehicles, apart from a requirement that, within the LEZ, waste vehicles are at least EURO V. On the public transport fleet, the Regional Transport Authority HSL published numbers showing that in 2013 there were about 1,400 buses, 55 metro trains, 130 trams, 120 commuter trains and 4 ferries. There was only very limited information on the EU emission classes of public transport vehicles. This information stated that busses in the LEZ have to be at least EURO III and that the city is investing in other cleaner-fuel buses.

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Capital of Italy

Rome’s local transport company ATAC operated a public transport fleet of about 2,500 vehicles in 2012. ATAC names an average bus age of eight years and sets a recommended road life span of up to 12 years. By 2014, almost 400 new buses with Euro V engines were planned to be purchased and set in operation. In an earlier fleet renewal programme in 2003, ATAC purchased 1,107 Euro III buses, of which 300 were equipped with CRT systems that filter out particulate matter (PM10).

No information could be retrieved about the municipal car fleet and the breakdown of its emission classes.

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Capital of Sweden

The City’s own vehicle fleet consists of 100% alternative fuel vehicles where this possibility is available. Although the city has an intensive programme for greening its vehicle fleet, there was no information on measures that are effective in reducing soot and particulate matter, i.e. retrofitting programmes or emissions standards. Stockholm’s public procurement targets are developed in conjunction with its climate and energy 2012-2015 policies. Consequently, the targets for the fleet in place are: in 2016, 75% of the bus fleet will be powered by renewable fuels, 90 % before 2021 and that the fleet will be free of fossil fuels in 2025. Furthermore, the city also promotes the use of electric vehicles in its municipal fleet; in 2014, about 9% of the fleet was electric.

With regard to air quality targets, the information was limited, however the city has set requirements that new HGVs most comply with Euro IV and from 2016 onwards with Euro V.

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Capital of Czech Republic

In the last few years, Prague has invested in its municipal and bus fleet: it increased its fleet of Compressed Natural Gas cleaning vehicles to 35 in 2010. And additionally, 720 new Euro V/EEV buses (a replacement of over 50% of the fleet) were to be purchased between 2010 and 2015 (with 40 new EEV buses between 2012 and 2015). There are two electric minibuses, three electric municipal cars, and some CNG fuelled buses in operation. A wider deployment is planned. There was only limited information of the overall fleet, but with these measures the city proved its concern for air quality in public procurement.

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All Euro III busses have been retrofitted by an initiative of the public bus company (Rheinbahn) starting already in 2006. Since 2010, vehicles had to comply with Euro V or better. Every tender today asks for Euro V or Euro VI.

For municipal vehicles the picture in 2012 is as follows: almost 43% of all busses were below EURO IV, 28% were Euro IV and almost 30% were EEV, EURO 5 & Euro 6 or Hybrids. The share of 220 vehicles worse than Euro 4 in 2012 is too high considering the still existing exceedances of NO2. Retrofitting busses with SCRT-Systems is considered to be an appropriate measure in the air quality plan 2013. But no measure is taken as funding is seen as a necessary prerequisite for municipal action.

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Capital of Portugal

The city of Lisbon had a bus fleet of 632 busses in 2013, 73.1% of which were below Euro IVstandards. Less than 10% are Euro V or EEV standard buses. Additionally, there were 49 electric busses with a variety of purposes, mainly as tourist vehicles.

In 2013, 68% of the municipal fleet are below Euro 4 standard. In recent years it has pursued the strategy of replacing the older and more polluting vehicles with low emitting vehicles, or phasing them out completely. As part of the city’s strategy, 54 new electric vehicles were purchased in 2013.

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No information could be retrieved about the public transport and municipal vehicle fleets and their emissions standards. In the last ranking in 2011, the city reported a very low share of 12.6% that either was equipped with particle filters or met minimum Euro IV standards.

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