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Traffic & Mobility Management Incl. Modal Split

Measures to manage transport, modal split changes

What has been the modal split trend during the last five years? The ranking looked into reductions of personal motorised transport as well as possible targets for the coming years. Some cities are developing innovative mobility management measures aimed at citizens but also companies, schools or universities. They can also influence air quality by reducing speed limits. We have evaluated the general transport strategy and the vision which the city has. We also looked at the modal split trend during the last five years: we evaluated whether personal motorised transport decreased and what the targets are for the future.



The city is continuously moving away from motorised individual transport. Starting at a modal share of 35% in 2005, it was reduced to 28% by 2012. A further reduction to 24% is planned by 2020, parallel to higher public transport usage (42%) and higher shares of cycling (8%) and walking (26%). Motorised individual transport is envisioned to shrink to 20% of all transportation by 2025. Accordingly, the number of cars per capita is decreasing, currently standing at 357 cars per 1000 inhabitants.

The city currently limits traffic to 30 km/h in most residential areas. Main roads are generally limited to 50 km/h. In the context of a street noise reduction programme, the speed limit of an additional 100 municipal streets (or street sections) has been reduced to 30 km/h. Also in this regard, the limits on a number of supra-municipal streets were also further reduced.

Events attracting more than 5000 people have to submit a traffic concept that includes public transport and combi-tickets. Events which are free of charge have to pay a mobility charge which can be used to increase the capacity of public transport. There is a public car-sharing programme with a limited number of cars.

Website to urban mobility action plan until 2025 (Ger.):…

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Capital of Austria

The modal split statistics for 2010 and 2012 reveal a 4% reduction for motorised individual transport to 27%, combined with a 1% increase in cycling and a 3% increase in public transport. Targets for 2020 aim at a share of motorised individual transport of 20% (5% less than predicted in 2003), an increased public transport usage of 40% as well as an increased cycling share of 12% (4% more than predicted in 2003).In its long-term urban development plan, re-purposing the urban space is part of the strategic targets, together with a higher integration of public transport, biking and walking as well as an attractive and comprehensive system of cycling lanes and walking paths.

The city’s street network comprises about 2,800 km (not including motorways), of which 59% are limited to a speed of 30 km/h. These 30 km/h zones were extended by 150 km starting in 2009, and had a total length of about 1600 km in 2013. Main roads are limited to 50 km/h and urban motorways to 80 km/h. One of the most interesting examples of activity in Vienna is the important shopping street Maria-Hilfer-Straße being converted into a pedestrian area in 2013.

Evaluation of the Vienna Masterplan Transport (2013) (ger.)…

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Capital of Finland

The Helsinki Region Transport Authority envisages making public transport the number one choice for travelling within the city by 2025. In the framework of this strategy, Helsinki is undertaking a number of measures to strengthen public transport, walking and cycling, and reduce individual motorised transport through mobility management measures. Generally, current investments of about €1,300m per year in public transport, mobility management and infrastructure will be increased to adapt to, for example, public transport expansion plans.

So far, Helsinki seems to be able to achieve this aim and is continuously improving its modal split. While in 2000 the mode of walking had a share of 17%, this increased to 30% in 2010 and 34% in 2014. Bicycle use increased from 4% in 2000 and 9% in 2010 to 11% in 2014. The share of public transport was 20% in 2000, had an intermediate high of 38% in 2012 and dropped to 32% in 2014. The share of individual motorised transport was at a very low level of 19% in 2000, increased to an intermediate high of 31% in 2008, but managed to shrink back to 22% in 2014. Although the share of motorised individual transport is very low at the moment, the number of passenger cars per 1,000 inhabitants continuously rose from about 330 in 2000 to over 400 in 2012.

Speed limits in Helsinki are 120 km/h on motorways in (summer), 80 or 100 km/h on main roads and between 30 and 60 km/h on residential roads. The Helsinki has quite elaborate plans to improve Park & Ride connections and increase P&R parking spaces by 6,000 car and 8,000 bike spaces by 2025.

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Capital of France

Figures on the weekday modal split for 2010 show that 46.6% of people in Paris walk, 33.5% use public transport and 16.2% use cars and motorcycles as mode of transport. The share of cycling is very low at 2.7%. In 2013, the weekday modal split improved with regard to cleaner modes of transport. Here, the share of walking increased to 48%, the share of public transport increased to 36%, and car and motorcycle use decreased to 13%. However, bike use also decreased to 2%, the share of motorcycles decreased to 2% and other modes of transport have a share of 1%.

In Paris, the general speed limit for cars is 50 km/h, but the anti–air-pollution plan envisages a speed limit of 30 km/h across most central districts and soft modes of transport are to feature more strongly. By now, a third of roads in the city, 560 km, have a speed limit reduced to 30 km/h. Additionally, there are zones de rencontres (encounter zones) with a maximum of 20 km/h, in which cyclists, pedestrians and car users share the same space. On the periphery the speed limit was reduced from 80 to 70 km/h in 2014.

The car sharing scheme “Autolib’” is continuously increasing its number of stations and cars. Between 2012 and 2013 alone, the number of cars increased from about 1,750 to 2,000 and the number of stations increased by 100 to 830. The use of electric cars is going to be promoted through a network of charging points to be placed every 500 m.

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Capital of Denmark

Copenhagen has a comprehensive strategy to increase sustainable mobility and offers a wide range of mobility management services. For example, the city undertakes company mobility programmes and it also has an extensive speed limit approach. The planned target is to set 40 km/h as the general speed limit in Copenhagen, paired with 30 km/h in residential areas. There are 3 car-sharing organisations with 130 parking spaces for their cars.

In 2013, the modal split of Copenhagen showed a very low rate of car use with 29%. public transport was at 28%, cycling at 36% and walking at 7%. This is a very sustainable transport pattern and the city still wants to improve it. For example, its target is to have 50% of all commuting journeys happen on bicycles.

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Capital of Sweden

Stockholm’s strategic targets are determined in particular by its ‘roadmap for fossil-fuel Stockholm 2050’. Its current modal split shows a share of motorised individual transport of 25%, public transport of 30% and the soft modes (cycling and walking) of 45%. The modal split thus features only a relatively low share of individual motorised transport, but a high share of sustainable transport. The speed limit on the majority of roads is 30km/h, accompanied by enforcement and communication measures. The city has a carpooling programme with almost 170 vehicles which it plans to expand. There are information services for journey planning, including online campaigns & free-trial tickets. Also, the city offers travel plans for schools and businesses.

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Capital of Spain

The modal share in Madrid in 2011 was 29.9% for motorised private transport, 38.4% for public transport, 29.4% for walking and 0.3% cycling. Compared to 2009, there was no positive trend visible. Motorised private transport rather increased instead of a reduction. The cities target of 3% cycling in 2016 seems not feasible anymore.

The Air Quality Plan of Madrid 2011-2015 was not completely implemented due to the impact of the economic crisis. Some of its measures like the Pedestrian Plan were not initiated because of lack of funding. Other measures like the bike sharing system were delayed more than a year from the scheduled plan and reduced in coverage. In 2013, the city has introduced a new taxi regulation, part of which addresses air quality issues. Furthermore, the city has implemented some 30km/h zones, but the council rejected a citizen proposal to spread the 30km/h speed limit to all the residential neighbourhoods of Madrid.

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Capital of Germany

With its urban traffic planning strategy (Stadtentwicklungsplan Verkehr, StEP Verkehr) Berlin has developed a very comprehensive set of measures aiming at reducing car use in the city. The city has one of the lowest shares of cars per inhabitants in Germany. Private motorised transport could be reduced by 6% compared to 1998. The modal shares in 2013 are 32% cars, 27 % public transport and 13% cycling, 29 % walking. The lowest share of private motorised transport can be found in the district Berlin-Kreuzberg with 17%. Generally, the modal split has hardly changed since 2008. Only the share of bikes, pedestrians and public transport is marginally increasing in the city. Nevertheless, the long term plan is to reduce car use to 25% in 2025.

A speed limit of 30 km/h exists for large parts of residential streets. Some of the main roads are additionally reduced to 30 km/h maximum speed mainly to reduce noise. Overall, 75% of the roads in Berlin are subject to 30 km/h speed limits. That includes also 230kms of main roads, although partly temporary. The share of 30 km/h zones will be continually increased. The city also created measures for mobility management for companies, as well as for commuters, for schools and for elderly people. Car sharing is promoted by dedicated parking spaces, and several measures promote multimodal interconnectivity.

More information on mobility in Berlin (Ger.):

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In the last few years the city has been very active in introducing speed limits of 30 km/h in residential streets, with an increase of 45.3% to about 440 km between 2010 and 2013. Only limited information was available on mobility management measures. In 2013, the city had a modal split of 39.3% public transport, 26.5% motorised private transport and 35% for walking and cycling. That represents a large share of public transport and walking while motorised transport plays a comparably small role in the city. Notably, there is a slow reduction trend away from the use of cars. While walking covers over 30% of the journeys, the share of cycling in 2010 was still lower than 1.4%. The city has targets for promoting public transport and sustainable transport, and for reducing motorised private transport well below 20%.

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Capital of Belgium

The city undertakes capacity management for main roads and is expanding the 30km/h zones, in particular in the “hyper-centre” and in all residential areas. The modal share of cars in the city was planned to decrease by 6% by 2015 and by 20% by 2020. In 2010 the share of cars was still very high (42.6%). The metropolitan area has a share of private motorised transport of 33.5%. Cycling targets for 2020 are particularly impressive, from 3.5% in 2010 in the inner city to 20% in 2020.

Brussels aims at reducing space for cars in favour of bicycles and buses. The Mobiris mobility centre manages traffic centrally and is to become a multimodal information centre: you can gather information about Cambio (car sharing), Villo (bike sharing), Collecto night taxis (taxi sharing), workplace travel plans, travel plans for schools and events, and awareness raising programmes. The region funds the Taxistop carpooling centre, which is an awareness action database and manager. Cambio car sharing was launched in 2004. By 2010 it had 180 vehicles, 60 stations, and 5,000 members.

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The modal split changed from very high personal motorised traffic in the 1990s (>50%) towards a slow but continuous reduction trend. In the city centre, the modal share of cars and motorcycles is 36%, in ‘”Grand Lyon” it is 49%. The city has managed a slow increase in public transport (16%), walking (33%) and cycling (2%).

The area covered by a 30km/h speed limit has been approximately tripled over the last years and is today in force on 210 km of the city. Further speed limit reductions are set on several highway sections, including further reductions in case of ozone pollution peaks. There are several car sharing schemes in Lyon, one of them operating only electric cars with 100% renewable energy.

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The modal share of private motorised transport is rather high (44%). Public transport has a share of 24% and soft modes like cycling and walking have a share of 32%.

A lot of new mobility management activities have been started during the last two years. For instance, an expansion of speed limits of 40 km/h on streets with ascending slopes in order to improve air quality (role model Hohenheimer Straße in Stuttgart). The expected reduction effect is 5% PM10 and NO2. These measures are combined with measures to improve traffic flow.

A comprehensive mobility card with a focus on electric mobility and municipal services (Stuttgart Service Card including a payment facility) will be offered for 240,000 persons and is part of a public awareness campaign Sustainable mobility in Stuttgart in 2015. This is part of a cooperation between companies and stakeholders to improve corporate mobility management.

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Capital of United Kingdom

The modal split in London has a high share of public transport, at 36% in 2012. The steady increase of public transport use is accompanied by a steady reduction of private car use. This private motorised transport has a modal share of 37%, which is a decrease of 6% since 2007. Cycling and walking rates remained relatively static for years. The shares of both cycling and walking are predicted to increase slowly between 2012 and 2031, from 2% to 5% for cycling and 24% to 25% for walking.

The city has several programs to support car sharing operators with hybrid and electric cars as well as smarter travel initiatives that promote clean and sustainable ways for travel to work and school. There was also a short-term anti-engine-idling campaign in 2012.

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Capital of the Netherlands

The city offers several mobility management instruments. They have park & ride strategies, conduct dialogues with businesses and other stakeholders and provide traveller information tools. Mobile and social applications are mostly developed by private actors. The municipality does not offer car-pooling programmes. No new facilities for vulnerable groups are to be built within a range of 300 m of a highway or 50 m of a provincial road (though it is possible to deviate from these rules).

Speed limits are set to 30 km/h in residential areas, where all traffic is mixed on one line. Overall, there is a speed limit of 30 km/h on 90% of the roads.

The city states that 32% of traffic movement in the city is by bicycle compared to 22% by car and 16% by public transport. In the city centre, 48% of traffic movement is by bicycle. The city does not set future modal split targets. It is however expected that there will be a continuing move towards sustainable transport, with increasing bicycle use and decreasing car traffic.

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Some measures to influence traffic flow have been introduced in the air quality hot spot of Corneliusstrasse: With the help of traffic light at the outskirts of Dusseldorf the amount of inflow of vehicles is regulated by traffic lights. Traffic flow has been improved by reserved and controlled loading zones. But these measures are not

Speed limits are generally set 50km/h for main roads and 30 km/h for residential areas, however, they are not seen as a means to improve air quality but of safety and noise reduction.

The share of motorised transport (cars) is high with 41% (2001). No reduction is planned for 2020 in the traffic development plan 2020 scheme. The main problem are the high numbers of 250.000 daily commuters (Pendler) almost 80% of them travelling by car. No modal shift is being planned.

Additional road construction is seen as remedy to react to high modal shares of cars. Measures of mobility management of companies have been startet, as well as Bike to work projects and rideshare programmes in cars but with rather limited outreach and no positive effects on the city as a whole. Ten additional vehicles offered in the e-carflex business service carpool. Environmentally friendly business trips are recommended through the use of incentivised pedelecs and e-cars.

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Milan has a very high level of motorisation, with about 72 cars or motorcycles per 100 inhabitants. Nevertheless, this decreased by 17% between 2003 and 2013 for cars. Similarly, between 2005 and 2013, the modal split share of private motorised transport decreased from 44% to 37%. Public transport increased from 51% to 57%, and cycling from 5% to 6%.

Interestingly, the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (PUMS) published in February 2015 sets incredibly unambitious targets for 2024. It foresees a marginal shift to higher shares of public transport (+1%) and cycling (±0%), and less car and motorcycle use (-1%). Walking as a mode of transport does not seem to be considered at all. The plan is still in the process of public participation in 2015, but overall targets for long-term changes like the enlargement of the congestion charge area in 2022 or some minor interventions like a doubling of 30 km/h zones from currently 0.36 km² are all that is planned.

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Capital of Czech Republic

Prague does not seem to have a comprehensive mobility strategy, although it has a very high level of motorisation, which has increased over the last 10 years. There were about 690 registered vehicles and 540 registered cars per 1,000 inhabitants in 2013. Nevertheless, the modal split during workdays for 2013 shows a high share of public transport (43%), followed by motorised private transport with 33% and 23% pedestrians. Only 1% of people cycle. There are no modal split targets available. Yearly, Prague spends CZK 25m (= €0.9m) on transport. The car sharing system CAR4WAY was launched in 2013 with 50 cars. The plan was to extend this to 150 cars by the end of 2014.

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United Kingdom

The general strategy of Glasgow is the reduction of private motorised transport and the increase of people using public transport, walking and cycling. In 2012, Glasgow had a modal split of 46.1% people walking, followed by motorised transport of 31.6% and 20.2% of public transport. However, these figures are based on a travel diary survey and not very reliable.

The city will introduce speed limits of 20 mph in the city centre.

Glasgow City Council operates 64 charging points for electric vehicles, with a further 8 on-street charging points due to be operational by March 2015. Glasgow operates a car sharing scheme called City Car Club with a limited number of cars.

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Capital of Italy

In 2013, 50.5% of all rush hour journeys in Rome were undertaken by car, 15.5% by motorbike, 28.4% by public transport and 5.6% were made using bicycles or on foot. In comparison with 2004, after almost 10 years, the modal split has not really improved, and only marginal changes have occurred. In the new mobility plan for Rome, however, modelled scenarios show a modal split of 43.8% car use, 14.8% motorcycle use and 34.4% public transport use. 6.9% of journeys are envisaged to be made by bicycle and walking in the near future.

Rome has a very high share of motorisation with 67 cars and 15 motorcycles per 100 inhabitants. The motorisation rate for all vehicles is over 90%. What aggravates the local air pollution situation is that almost 50% of cars are below Euro 4 emission standard. Rome is experiencing an increase in car sharing and carpooling – nevertheless on a relatively low level with only 110 cars for about 3000 registered users in 2013. There is a limited service for free-floating car sharing by three different operators. In the framework of a new freight delivery plan, a van-sharing system with electric vehicles is being tested.

Generally, electric mobility is planned to be developed and promoted. Currently there is a plan to set up 114 recharging columns at 60 sites in the city.

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Capital of Portugal

The last modal split statistics for Lisbon were published for 2001, which admittedly is hard to base an up-to-date judgement on. Informal data provided by Lisbon municipality for 2011, however, show that only marginal changes have happened since then: Lisbon has a very high share of private motorised transport (48%), in comparison with only 34% for public transport, 1% for cycling and 17% for walking. No target for how the modal split should develop is documented.

Lisbon has no clear mobility strategy, instead implementing individual initiatives to improve the modal share of car usage: 30 km/h zones were implemented in 30 local neighbourhoods, an on-demand public transport service was installed and school transport was centrally coordinated. A national electric mobility programme initiated in 2009 promotes the usage of electric vehicles.

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In 2013, Graz had a modal split of 46.8% motorised individual transport, 19.8% public transport, 14.5% cycling and 18.9% walking. By 2021, the city aims to reduce the share of cars to 37%, to increase the share of public transport to 24%, of cycling to 20% and to stabilise the share of walking at 19%.

The city has had the “30/50” speed limit model since 1992 with 50km/h on main roads (of which there are about 200km) and 30km/h on all non-main roads (about 800km). There have also been speed limits on the Autobahnen since 2008 depending on the emission situation. Graz has a relatively good public transport system with six tram lines and 37 bus lines.

In the framework of the project Graz steigt um (Graz is switching), the city was awarded the Austrian Climate protection award 2012.

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Capital of Ireland

In the framework of the National Transport Strategy 2011-2013 as well as the Integrated Implementation Plan 2013-2018, Dublin aims to reduce individual car use and promote walking, cycling and public transport. Despite of a variety of measures to reach this aim, the motorisation in Dublin City seems to continue to increase. While in 2006 the number of cars per 1,000 inhabitants was about 320, it was more than 340 in 2011.

The modal split in Dublin in 2009 was composed as follows: The share of people walking was 21%, cycling was 2% and the share of people travelling by public transport was 13%. Individual car use was 65%. Unfortunately, no current or target values could be retrieved about the general modal split. Only information on the modal split in the morning peak in the Greater Dublin Area is available. The Smarter Travel plan also intends to increase the share of public transport from 19% in 2006 to 30% in 2030. In contrast, the share of walking and cycling is planned to increase by only 1% to a total of 25% in 2030. Finally, individual car use is intended to be reduced from 57% to 45% within this time period. The general speed limit in Dublin City is 50 km/h. Most roads within the city comply with this speed limit. Nevertheless, a core area in the city centre has a speed limit of 30 km/h, and there are some roads adjacent to schools where the limit is reduced at peak times. Some roads further out of the city are limited to 60 or 80 km/h.

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Capital of Luxembourg

With its Air Quality Plan aiming to reduce individual car use and its mobility strategy MODU, Luxembourg has developed comprehensive instruments to promote walking, cycling and the use of public transport. From a modal split of 13% walking and cycling, 14.5% public transport and actually an extremely high share of 72.5% car or motorcycle use in 2009, the City is now aiming to increase walking and cycling to 25% and public transport to 19% by 2020. Still, that leaves 56% for car and motorcycle use.

Luxembourg has a very high share of diesel vehicles and also 70% of all newly registered cars are diesel-fuelled. Additionally, a major commuter problem exists: there are 3,800 jobs per 1,000 inhabitants. Theoretically, three out of four employees live outside the city and thus need to commute to work.

There is currently no car sharing system in Luxembourg, but the city has announced once more that it will introduce one in the near future.

Luxembourg has a very high percentage of 30 km/h zones, pedestrian zones and residential zones de rencontre (encounter zones) with a speed limit of 20 km/h, in which pedestrians have priority over other road users.

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